The Cyber Kill Chain

The Cyber Kill Chain (CKC) is a sequential set of steps that takes place when an attack happens. There are many variations of the CKC by different companies such as , but the “trusted” and most convincing variant is by Lockheed Martin. This CKC is pretty straightforward, and by disrupting any part of the kill […]

Side Channel Data Exfiltration

A typical data exfiltration attack can be quite easy to spot. By monitoring the usage of common protocols such as HTTP, HTTPS, FTP or even DNS, we can deduce if a data exfiltration is taking place. Most modern DLP (Data Leak Prevention) solutions today that incorporate network analysis can perform such detection across multiple protocols. […]

Looking out for C2 Traffic

Types of C2 Communication When a host gets infected with a malware, sometimes it will attempt to call back to it’s Command and Control (C2) to get, or send information. There are 4 types of C2 communication traffic Beacon After a host has been compromised, the malware will send a message heartbeat to the C2 […]

MITRE on Threat Detection

I just sat through a webinar by the folks at Red Canary, and they covered some questions regarding threat detection using the MITRE ATT&CK framework. The webinar sat down with the researchers who created MITRE, and it was quite insightful. Here are some of the notes I took that may be useful for present and […]

CSRF Tokens

If we look at source codes of HTML forms, we typically can spot this field being rendered on the webpage Sometimes it doesn’t have the name called CSRF Token, and it just appears as a random gibberish value being loaded. This post breaks down the purpose of the token, and what happens behind the scenes […]

OS Inference through Ping TTL

Terminologies Ping: An command to discover the availability of a target machine. It sends an ICMP Echo Request, and waits for an Echo Reply TTL: Time-To-Live, which tells the network routers how long the packet should live. For each router that passes the packet on, the TTL reduces by 1. Once TTL reaches 0, the […]

How to harden a Linux Kernel

Hardening means to make the something more secure and resilient to attacks. When people talk about hardening, they usually talk about server hardening, which includes things like IP / MAC address white listing Closing unused ports Uninstalling unused systems Disabling root login (no one can login as root, only a normal user who can sudo) […]

UEFI and Secure Boot

Secure Boot is a verification mechanism to ensure that code launched by the firmware is trusted. It ensures that all system level drivers are signed and trusted. Before we talk about secure boot and how it works, we need to have some understand of UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) Overview of BIOS and UEFI Both […]